020-021第二十,二十一課   重生(狹義)

Lectures 20, 21                       REGENERATION (Narrow Sense)

 

 

狹義的重生﹕這內在改變的第一步。

Regeneration (narrow sense) = the initial step of this subjective transformation.

 

  1. 雅各書 1:18

祂按自己的旨意, 用真道生了我們, 叫我們在他所造的萬物中好像初熟的果子。

James 1:18                 

In the exercise of His will He brought us forth by the word of truth, so that we would be a kind of first fruits among His creatures.

                           

彼前 1:23                

你們蒙了重生,不是由於能壞的種子,乃是由於不能壞的種子,是藉著上帝活潑常存的道。

I Peter 1:23

for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable, {that is,} through the living and enduring word of God.    

-- 這兩個字,約翰,保羅沒有用過。

-- Apokueo, anagennao – not found in Paul or John. 

這兩個字似乎指廣義的重生。    

2 words seem to point to broad sense of regeneration.   

雅各﹕我們由上帝的話生出。

James: we are brought forth by the Word.

重生不是按上帝的話的勸導(這個重生定義是異端);重生是聖靈直接的工作。

Regeneration is not moral suasion based on Word (heresy), but direct operation of the Holy Spirit. 

道不是指有位格的道(道成肉身的道)。

“Word” = not hypostatic Word (in context).  Warfield 366. 

重生是基督直接的工作。

Both refer to narrower regeneration.  Immediate action of Christ.

狹義的重生,在聖靈救贖次序以外沒有意義﹕重生並不離開上帝的道而獨立發生。

Regeneration in narrower sense has no meaning outside of ordo salutis; it doesn’t take place aside from the Word.  

 

  1. 3:1-8

 

3 耶穌回答說, 我實實在在的告訴你, 人若不重生, 就不能見上帝的國。

5耶穌說, 我實實在在的告訴你, 人若不是從水和 ()靈生的,就不能進上帝的國。

6 從肉身生的, 就是肉身. 從靈生的, 就是靈。

8 風隨著意思吹, 你聽見風的響聲, 卻不曉得從那裡來, 往那裡去凡從 () 生的,  

   是如此

John 3:1-8

3 Jesus answered and said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.”

5 Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

6 “That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

8 “The wind blows where it wishes and you hear the sound of it, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going; so is everyone who is born of the Spirit.”

-- 重生(聖靈的工作)﹕奧秘;事實;

可以看見果子;事件(過程?)。

-- Regeneration (work of Holy Spirit): mystery; fact;

fruits=seen; event (process?).

 

i. 3:31                          

從天上來的, 是在萬有之上. 從地上來的, 是屬乎地, 他所說的, 也是屬乎地。從天上來的, 是在萬有之上。

John 3:31

“He who comes from above is above all, he who is of the earth is from the earth and speaks of the earth. He who comes from heaven is above all.

                                      

4:9                          

現在你們既然認識上帝, 更可說是被上帝所認識的。怎麼還要歸回那懦弱無用的小學, 情願再給他作奴僕呢?

Gal. 4:9

But now that you have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, how is it that you turn back again to the weak and worthless elemental things, to which you desire to be enslaved all over again?

                                       

15:38                         

殿裡的幔子, 從上到下裂為兩半。

Mark 15:38

And the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. 

-- Gennethe anothen – born again, born from above.

Anothen:主要的意思是 從上頭來的

-- Anothen – more usually taken to mean “from above” in the New Testament.

-- Palin – linked with anothen (again). 

 

ii. Gennethei from gennao.

人的出生 = 比喻。人出生 = 被動的事。

Analogy of human generatrion. Person begotten – passive.

新的個別的生命開始了。(不是生命的延續。)重要的,是新生命的開始。

New, individual life comes into existence.  (Not extension, not continuation.)  

Focus on initiation of new life. 

 

iii.3:3 ,5                       

3耶穌回答說, 我實實在在的告訴你, 人若不重生, 就不能見神上帝的國。                     

5 耶穌說, 我實實在在的告訴你, 人若不是從水和 ()靈生的就不能進上帝的國。

John 3:3, 5

3 Jesus answered and said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.”

5 Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.”

--永生與上帝的國是同樣的事。

-- Zoen aionion and kingdom of God are the same.

--永遠的生命,是在上帝的國的範圍堙C

-- Eternal life is in Kingdom’s realm.

--天國的事,都與生命有關。

-- Kingdom-activity pertains to life. 

Believing, one sees and enters life.

 

iv.3:5

耶穌說, 我實實在在的告訴你, 人若不是從水和 ()靈生的就不能進上帝的國.

John 3:5

Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.”

第一.從水生= 從聖靈生(加爾文)。                         

First: Born of water, even of Spirit (Calvin).  Water = Spirit.

                                       

3:8                             

風隨著意思吹, 你聽見風的響聲, 卻不曉得從那裡來, 往那裡去。凡從 ()靈生的, 也是如此。

John 3:8

“The wind blows where it wishes and you hear the sound of it, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going; so is everyone who is born of the Spirit.”

-- 8節沒有提到水。                            

-- Water = absent                           

                                       

3:11                           

我是用水給你們施洗, 叫你們悔改。但那在我以後來的, 能力比我更大.我就是給他提鞋, 也不配. 他要用聖靈與火給你們施洗。

Matt. 3:11

“As for me, I baptize you with water for repentance, but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, and I am not fit to remove His sandals; He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.        

--聖靈與火。 Spirit and fire.

 

7:38-39                     

38 信我的人, 就如經上所說, 從他復中要流出活水的江河來。

39 耶穌這話是指著信他之人, 要受 ()靈說的, 那時還沒有賜下聖靈來, 因為耶穌尚 

     未得著榮耀。

John 7:38-39

“As for me, I baptize you with water for repentance, but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, and I am not fit to remove His sandals; He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.”

                                       

林前12:13

我們不拘是猶太人, 是希利尼人, 是為奴的, 是自主的都從一位 ()靈受洗, 成了

一個身體, 飲於一位 ()靈。

I Cor. 12:13

For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit.

                         

44:3              

因為我要將水澆灌口渴的人, 將河澆灌乾旱之地。我要將我的靈澆灌你後裔, 將我的福澆灌你的子孫。

Isaiah 44:3

‘For I will pour out water on the thirsty {land} And streams on the dry ground; I will pour out My Spirit on your offspring And My blessing on your descendants;’

-- 賜生命賜靈->賜生命賜水。     

-- Giving of life – giving of Spirit -> Giving of life – giving water. 

 

第二﹕約翰在這堙]從水重生)主要關心的,不是賜生命,乃是潔淨。                   

Second: John is not concerned with life-giving, but as purifying.

舊約也提到潔淨的功能。                  

Purifying function = also in the Old Testament.  

天主教﹕洗禮 = 重生所必須的。聖禮本身有功效。

Roman Catholics: Baptism = indispensable means of regeneration. Ex opera operatum.

路得宗的教導﹕洗禮 = 媒介,聖靈 = 重生人的那位。

聖靈的工作是的必須的。可是﹕聖靈透過洗禮來工作。

Lutheranism: Baptism = mediate cause and Holy Spirit = efficient cause of regeneration.  Work of Holy Spirit = necessary.  Nevertheless, baptism = means through which Holy Spirit works.

洗禮是聖靈所作成的恩典的外在記號。

Baptism is outward sign of grace wrought by Holy Spirit.

洗禮是聖靈所做成的重生的外在記號。

Baptism is outward sign of regeneration, worked by Holy Spirit. 

                                               

改革宗的看法﹕慕理,再思救贖奇恩Reformed view: John Murray:

第一.在約翰3章,沒有提到洗禮。

First: Born OF WATER: There is no illusion to baptism in John 3.

沒有足夠理由,認為水是指洗禮。

No compelling reason to think of water as referring to baptism. 

           

第二.基督所設定的洗禮,在這時候還沒有設定。                   

Second: Ordinance of Christian baptism is not instituted at this point. 

尼哥底母不可能了解洗禮的意義的。

Nicodemus could not have understood.  

           

第三.洗禮主要的意義,是與基督聯合。

Third: Chief idea of baptism is union with Christ.

尼哥底母不可能在這階段了解與基督聯合               

Nicodemus could not understand this, at this point.

耶穌是向一個法利賽人談話。

Jesus was speaking to a Pharisee.

對尼哥底母來說,水可能指什麼宗教觀念?

What was religious idea conveyed to Nicodemus by “water”?

潔淨。PURIFICATION. 

           

29:4                        

要使亞倫和他兒子到會幕門口來, 用水洗身。

Exodus 29:4

“Then you shall bring Aaron and his sons to the doorway of the tent of meeting and wash them with water.

           

30:18-21

18 你要用銅作洗濯盆和盆座, 以便洗濯.要將盆放在會幕和壇的中間, 在盆裡盛水。         

19 亞倫和他的兒子要在這盆裡洗手洗腳。          

20 他們進會幕, 或是就近壇前供職給耶和華獻火祭的時候, 必用水洗濯免得死亡。   21 他們洗手洗腳就免得死亡. 這要作亞倫和他後裔世世代代永遠的定例。          

Exodus 30:18-21

18 “You shall also make a laver of bronze, with its base of bronze, for washing; and you shall put it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and you shall put water in it.

19 “Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet from it;

20 when they enter the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water, so that they will not die; or when they approach the altar to minister, by offering up in smoke a fire {sacrifice} to the LORD.

21 “So they shall wash their hands and their feet, so that they will not die; and it shall be a perpetual statute for them, for Aaron and his descendants throughout their generations."

                                                

11:32                        

其中死了的, 掉在甚麼東西上, 這東西就不潔淨. 無論是木器, 衣服, 皮子, 口袋, 不拘是作甚麼工用的器皿須要放在水中, 必不潔淨到晚上, 到晚上才潔淨了.  

Lev. 11:32

‘Also anything on which one of them may fall when they are dead becomes unclean, including any wooden article, or clothing, or a skin, or a sack--any article of which use is made--it shall be put in the water and be unclean until evening, then it becomes clean.

-- 除去(獻祭制度方面的)不潔。            

-- Remove ceremonial defilement. 

                                   

利未記 13:5-6                        

5第七天, 祭司要察看他, 若看災病止住了, 沒有在皮上發散. 祭司還要將他關鎖七天.

6第七天, 祭司要再察看他, 若災病發暗, 而且沒有在皮上發散.祭司要定他為潔淨,  

   來是癬, 那人就要洗衣服, 得為潔淨。

Lev. 13:5-6

5 “The priest shall look at him on the seventh day, and if in his eyes the infection has not changed {and} the infection has not spread on the skin, then the priest shall isolate him for seven more days.

6 “The priest shall look at him again on the seventh day, and if the infection has faded and the mark has not spread on the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him clean; it is {only} a scab. And he shall wash his clothes and be clean.

                                   

23:11                       

到傍晚的時候, 他要用水洗澡, 及至日落了才可以入營

Deut. 23:11

“But it shall be when evening approaches, he shall bathe himself with water, and at sundown he may reenter the camp.

-- 因夢遺而不潔。

-- Unclean because of a nocturnal emission

                                    

16:4                      

論到你出世的景況, 在你初生的日子沒有為你斷臍帶, 也沒有用水洗你使你潔淨, 絲毫沒有撒鹽在你身上, 也沒有用布裹你。                 

Ezekiel 16:4

“As for your birth, on the day you were born your navel cord was not cut, nor were you washed with water for cleansing; you were not rubbed with salt or even wrapped in cloths.

                                    

16:9        

那時我用水洗呢,洗淨你身上的血,又用油抹你。       

Ezekiel 16:9

Then I bathed you with water, washed off your blood from you and anointed you with oil.

-- 道德上(心的)潔淨。    

-- Moral cleansing                 

                                    

36:25                         

我必用清水灑在你們身上, 你們就潔淨了。我要潔淨你們, 使你們脫離一切的污穢, 棄掉一切的偶像。

Ezekiel 36:25

“Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.       

-- 用清水灑。            

-- Sprinkle with clean water.            

                                  

5:26                       

要用水藉著道, 把教會洗淨, 成為聖潔。

Cf. Ephesians 5:26

so that He might sanctify her, having cleansed her by the washing of water with the word,

-- 基督潔淨祂的教會。

-- Christ cleanses his church

                                   

10:32                       

你們要追念往日, 蒙了光照以後, 所忍受大爭戰的各樣苦難。                        

Heb. 10:32

But remember the former days, when, after being enlightened, you endured a great conflict of sufferings,

-- 潔淨 = 進入天國的必須條件。

-- Purification = necessary condition to enter into kingdom.        

-- 潔淨 = 重生消極的一面。            

-- Purification = negative aspect of regeneration. 

           

 

從靈而生。

BORN OF SPIRIT.

 

靈的意義。

Meaning of Spirit.

                                   

3:6                       

從肉身生的, 就是肉身. 從靈生的, 就是靈。

John 3:6

“That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

                                   

3:8      

風隨著意思吹, 你聽見風的響聲, 卻不曉得從那裡來, 往那裡去. 凡從()靈生的, 也是如此。

John 3:8                     

“That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.   

-- 靈,指聖靈。進入天國是的被動的事件。                    

-- Holy Spirit.  Entering into kingdom = passive activity.

-- 聖靈是唯一作成重生的那位。                

-- Holy Spirit = sole operator of regeneration.

 -- 重生必須從兩個角度來看﹕

-- TWO ASPECTS from which regeneration must be viewed:

 

 

污穢被除去 /            新生命賜下

Vileness purged / newness of life

潔淨 / 更新

Purification / renewal

 

                                   

36:25-26                       

25 我必用清水灑在你們身上, 你們就潔淨了。 我要潔淨你們,使你們脫離一切的污

     , 棄掉一切的偶像。              

26 我也要賜給你們一個新心, 將新靈放在你們裡面. 又從你們的肉體中除掉石心,

     給你們肉心。

Ezekiel 36:25, 26

25 “Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.

26 “Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh.           

-- 3625-26 = 約翰35的背景。                   

-- Ezekiel 36:25-26 = background to, parallel to John 3:5

-- 3625-26;約335,多35 = 平衡經文。

-- Parallel to Titus 3:5

-- 都提到洗滌與更新。

-- Washing and renewal. 

-- 保羅在這埵傢似的教導。

-- Pauline equivalent. 

-- 提多35應該從末世的廣義角度來理解。

-- Titus 3:5 should be understood in broad, eschatological sense.

                                   

  3:5                        

祂便救了我們, 並不是因我們自己所行的義, 乃是照祂的憐憫,藉著重生的洗,和聖靈的更新。

Titus 3:5

He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit.

-- 因此﹕約翰3章應如此了解。

-- Therefore: John 3 can also be understood in this way. 

-- 我們對約翰3章的理解,不能完全不理會洗禮。

-- Baptism cannot be excluded from John 3 –

約翰頭幾章提到悔改,潔淨。

Early chapters of John (context) = of repentance, cleansing –      

就算在這堙A潔淨也不靠人內在的能力。

Even here, it isn’t effected by man’s resources in himself.

洗滌是由他人作的(施洗約翰)。

Washing is by someone else (John the Baptist).

悔改是上帝賜的恩賜。我們在悔改堿搢ㄓW帝的能力。 

Repentance is God’s gift.  In repentance we see God’s power. 

不只是悔改。施洗約翰語言聖靈和火的洗禮。

Not only repentance, but John the Baptist prophesied the Holy Spirit and fire.

火潔淨,煉淨;聖靈更新人。

Fire cleanses, purifies; Holy Spirit renews.

使徒行傳2章﹕悔改,接受洗禮;接受聖靈。

Acts 2: Peter: Repent; be baptized; receive the Holy Spirit.

羅馬書6章﹕保羅﹕與基督聯合﹕洗禮=根據(人被潔淨,更新)。

Romans 6: Paul: on basis of baptism (cleansing and renewal).

洗禮 = 與基督同死,同復活的經歷。

Baptism = death-and-resurrection experience.

 

v.肉體FLESH (sarx)  約翰John 3:6

3:6                         

從肉身生的, 就是肉身.。從靈生的, 就是靈。

“That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.”

-- 肉體﹕人在道德上(內心)污穢。Morally colored, tainted, depreciatory. 

-- 肉體,與靈對照。Flesh is contrasted with Spirit.

-- 被罪污染的,是有罪的。That which is polluted by sin is sinful.

-- 肉體本身不可能超越肉體自己。It is impossible for flesh to transcend flesh.

  (靈 = 聖靈。Spirit = Holy Spirit.)

人性被罪轄制 vs. 人性被聖靈重生。

Human nature controlled by sin, vs. human nature generated by Holy Spirit.

聖靈所重生的,不可能被肉體勝過﹕徹底的,完全的,從根拔起的改變。

What is generated by the Holy Spirit cannot be frustrated by the flesh: thorough, radical transformation. 

從靈聖的(新的開始)﹕就是靈(過程,生成)。

Being born of Spirit (inception): being Spirit (process, becoming). 

           

vi.SPIRIT(pneuma) –

3:8             

風隨著意思吹, 你聽見風的響聲, 卻不曉得從那裡來, 往那裡去。凡從 ()靈生的, 也是如此。

John 3:8

“The wind blows where it wishes and you hear the sound of it, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going; so is everyone who is born of the Spirit.”

-- 風,首先不是指聖靈自己(而是指聖靈的工作)。

-- Wind’s reference = not to the Holy Spirit in the first instance.

 -- 風吹, 像聖靈的工作﹕與風比較﹕

-- Blowing of wind like work of the Spirit – comparison with wind:

-- 第一﹕奧秘,看不見。我們看見果效,可是看不見風。

-- First: Mysterious, invisible – you see effects, but not the wind.

-- 第二﹕不可抗拒,大有果效。隨著自己意思。風掌主權。

-- Second: Irresistible, efficacious: “where it wills.”  Wind = sovereign.

-- 第三﹕可以看見果效。

-- Third: Fruit can be observed. 

 

 

閱讀:

《磐石之上》,第六章,『重生』。原著:Sinclair Ferguson, The Christian Life: A Doctrinal Introduction.  

網上閱讀此書:www.solarbeauty.com/chinesebible/The_Christian_Life.doc