026第二十六與二十七課   悔改

Lectures 26-27                        REPENTANCE

 

 

D.  信心和悔改的關係SAVING FAITH AND REPENTANCE

 

福音的呼召,是呼召人離棄罪,轉向基督﹕就是﹕呼召人悔改。

Gospel Call is call to turn from sin to Christ = call to repentance. 

悔改和信心必然有著密切的關係。

Repentance and faith are invariably associated, interdependent.

 

26:17-18

17 我也要救你脫離百姓和外邦人的手。

18 我差你到他們那裡去, 要叫他們的眼睛得開, 從黑暗中歸向光明, 從撒但權下歸

     向上帝. 又因信我, 得蒙赦罪, 和一切成聖的人同得基業。

Acts 26:17-18

17 rescuing you from the {Jewish} people and from the Gentiles, to whom I am sending you,

18 to open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the dominion of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who have been sanctified by faith in Me.’

-- 保羅勸導人﹕回轉歸向上帝 = 宣講悔改的道。

Conversion to Paul = proclamation of repentance.

 

20:21

又對猶太人, 和希利尼人, 證明當向上帝悔改, 信靠我主耶穌基督。

Acts 20:21

solemnly testifying to both Jews and Greeks of repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.

-- 宣講悔改和信心 = 保羅完成祂的福音使命的條件。

-- Repentance and faith = terms in which Paul has fulfilled his commission. 

 

 

  1. 聖經的用字。Biblical terminology. 

 

新約中最重要的詞﹕Metanoia, metanoeo – most important terms in the New Testament. 

3:2

天國近了, 你們應當悔改。

Matt. 3:2

“Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”

 

4:17

從那時候耶穌就傳起道來, , 天國近了, 你們應當悔改。

Matt. 4:17

From that time Jesus began to preach and say, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”

           

3:19            

所以你們當悔改歸正, 使你們的罪得以塗抹, 這樣, 那安舒的日子就必從主面前來到.

Acts 3:19

“Therefore repent and return, so that your sins may be wiped away, in order that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord;

           

20:21

又對猶太人, 和希利尼人, 證明當向上帝悔改, 信靠我主耶穌基督。

Acts 20:21

solemnly testifying to both Jews and Greeks of repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.

           

6:1             

所以我們應當離開基督道理的開端, 竭力進到完全的地步。不必再立根基, 就如那懊悔死行, 信靠上帝。

Hebrews 6:1

Therefore leaving the elementary teaching about the Christ, let us press on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God.

-- 悔改內在的意義﹕人意念,思想,意志的改變。

-- Internal: Change of mind and will

-- 悔改外在的意義﹕轉離罪,離棄給人憂傷的事(罪)。

-- External: Turning away from what gives rise to grief and sorrow.

          

26:18           

我差你到他們那裡去, 要叫他們的眼睛得開, 從黑暗中歸向光明, 從撒但權下歸向上帝。又因信我, 得蒙赦罪, 和一切成聖的人同得基業。

Acts 26:18

to open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the dominion of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who have been sanctified by faith in Me.'

-- 歸向﹕轉向。

-- Epistrephein.  To turn. 

           

26:20           

先在大馬色, 後在耶路撒冷, 和猶太全地, 以及外邦, 勸勉他們應當悔改向上帝, 行事與悔改的心相稱。

Acts 26:20

but {kept} declaring both to those of Damascus first, and {also} at Jerusalem and {then} throughout all the region of Judea, and {even} to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, performing deeds appropriate to repentance.

-- 用了兩個詞。

-- Both metanoia, metanoew, and epistrephein. 

-- = 回轉。

-- Epistrophe – conversion      

           

15:3

於是教會送他們起行, 他們經過腓尼基, 撒瑪利亞, 隨處傳說外邦人歸的事, 叫眾弟兄都甚歡喜。

Acts 15:3

Therefore, being sent on their way by the church, they were passing through both Phoenicia and Samaria, describing in detail the conversion of the Gentiles, and were bringing great joy to all the brethren.

           

帖前1:9

因為他們自己已經報明我們是怎樣進到你們那裡, 你們是怎樣離棄偶像歸神, 要服事那又真又活的上帝,

I Thess. 1:9

For they themselves report about us what kind of a reception we had with you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve a living and true God.

 

-- 悔改和歸向 = 相輔相成。

-- Metanoeo and epistrephein – complement one another –

-- 內在和外在的層面都包括了,都強調。

-- The internal and external are emphasized, though not exclusively.

 

21:32           

因為約翰遵著義路到你們這裡來, 你們卻不信他. 稅吏和娼妓倒信他。你們看見了, 後來還是不懊悔去信他。.

Matt. 21:32

“For John came to you in the way of righteousness and you did not believe him; but the tax collectors and prostitutes did believe him; and you, seeing {this,} did not even feel remorse afterward so as to believe him.

--這媥珖洩漸峈k,是指悔改以致得救﹕可能是聖經唯一一次這樣的用法。

This may be the only instance of use in the sense of repentance unto life.

-- 似乎強調悔意,懊悔。

Word seems to stress feeling of regret.

           

27:3            

這時候, 賣耶穌的猶大, 看見耶穌已經定了罪, 就後悔, 把那三十塊錢拿回來給祭司長和長老說,

Matt. 27:3

Then when Judas, who had betrayed Him, saw that He had been condemned, he felt remorse and returned the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,

-- 猶大的後悔﹕不是悔改,沒有導致生命。

-- Remorse of Judas – not a repentance unto life.

-- 舊約的懊悔﹕多次出現,多種用法。

Old Testament: shub – many occurrences, wide variety of use. 

-- 先知書常用﹕從罪中分別出來,決志離棄罪,歸向上帝與祂相通。

It is prominent in the prophets – moral separation from sin, determination to forsake sin, and to fellowship with God. 

-- 為罪憂傷。

Nacham – idea of grief for sin is prominent. 

-- 悔改  nacham 主要指上帝悔改,不過也有指人悔改的經文。

Repentance mainly referred to God (God repents), but also to man. 

-- 悔改的真理﹕在舊約非常重要。

REPENTANCE IS PROMINENT IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

-- 舊約向人的呼籲﹕要悔改。

Old Testament appeal = to repent.

 

  1. 悔改的意義。Meaning of repentance.

 

a.  憂傷,後悔。

Sorrow, remorse.

-- 為罪憂傷﹕不等於悔改;不過它是悔改的不可或缺的一部份。

Grief for sin is not heart of repentance, but an indispensable element.

-- 沒有憂傷,就沒有真悔改。

There is no (true) repentance without sorrow. 

     

約珥書 2:12,13

12 耶和華說, 雖然如此. 你們應當禁食, 哭泣, 悲哀, 一心歸向我。

13 你們要撕裂心腸, 不撕裂衣服. 歸向耶和華你們的上帝. 因為祂有恩典有憐憫,

     輕易發怒, 有豐盛的慈愛, 並且後悔不降所說的災。

Joel 2:12, 13

12 “Yet even now,” declares the LORD, “Return to Me with all your heart, And with fasting, weeping and mourning;

13 And rend your heart and not your garments.” Now return to the LORD your God, For He is gracious and compassionate, Slow to anger, abounding in lovingkindness And relenting of evil.

            

31:19

我回轉以後就真正懊悔.受教以後就拍腿 (歎息)我因擔當幼年的凌辱,就抱愧蒙羞

Jeremiah 31:19

‘For after I turned back, I repented; And after I was instructed, I smote on {my} thigh; I was ashamed and also humiliated Because I bore the reproach of my youth.’

-- 用了shub nacham 兩個詞。         

-- Both shub and nacham are used.

-- 舊約乎合新約﹕新約也強調為罪憂傷,悔改。

Old Testament corresponds with New Testament: the idea is not dropped in the

New Testament. 

           

林後 7:10            

因為依著上帝的意思憂愁, 就生出沒有後悔的懊悔來,以致得救. 但世俗憂愁, 是叫人死。

II Cor. 7:10

For the sorrow that is according to {the will} {of} God produces a repentance without regret, {leading} to salvation, but the sorrow of the world produces death.       

-- 悔改需要憂傷。

-- Sorrow. 

 

51:3-4

3因為我知道我的過犯我的罪常在我面前。

4 我向你犯罪, 惟獨得罪了你, 在你眼前行了這惡, 以致你責備我的時候顯為公義。   

   判斷我的時候, 顯為清正。

Psalm 51:3-4

3 For I know my transgressions, And my sin is ever before me.

4 Against You, You only, I have sinned And done what is evil in Your sight, So that You are justified when You speak And blameless when You judge.

-- 為罪憂傷,因為犯罪乃是得罪上帝。

-- Sorrow for sin because sin is against God.

-- 違背了上帝的律法﹕更違背上帝的本性。

-- Against God’s law – moreover, against God’s nature.

-- 因此﹕只離棄犯罪的罪行是不夠的。

-- Therefore: abandoning practice of sin is not enough:

-- 也要離棄對罪的戀慕。

-- It is necessary to abandon love of sin. 

     

b.  離棄罪

Forsaking sin.

 

威敏斯特小要理問答,第87

問﹕悔改以致得永生是什麼﹖

答﹕悔改以致得永生是上帝所賜的恩典﹐使罪人因真覺悟自己的罪﹐又確知上帝在基督裡的恩慈﹐就痛心懊悔﹐恨惡並離開自己的罪﹐歸向上帝﹐立志竭力重新順從。

Westminster Shorter Catechism, Question 87.

Q.87.  What is repentance unto life?

A.  Repentance unto life is a saving grace, by which a sinner, being truly aware of his sinfulness, understands the mercy of God in Christ, grieves for and hates his sins, and turns from them to God, fully intending and striving fro a new obedience.

           

18:30-31           

30 所以主耶和華說, 以色列家阿, 我必按你們各人所行的審判你們你們當回頭離

     開所犯的一切罪過. 這樣, 罪孽必不使你們敗亡。     

31 你們要將所犯的一切罪過盡行拋棄, 自作一個新心和新靈。以色列家阿,你們何必

      死亡呢?

Ezekiel 18:30-31

30 “Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, each according to his conduct,” declares the Lord GOD. “Repent and turn away from all your transgressions, so that iniquity may not become a stumbling block to you.

31 “Cast away from you all your transgressions which you have committed and make yourselves a new heart and a new spirit! For why will you die, O house of Israel?”

          

林後7:11

你看, 你們依著上帝的意思憂愁, 從此就生出何等的殷勤, 自訴, 自恨, 恐懼想念,熱心, 責罰 (或作自責), 在這一切事上你們都表明自己是潔淨的。

II Cor. 7:11

For behold what earnestness this very thing, this godly sorrow, has produced in you: what vindication of yourselves, what indignation, what fear, what longing, what zeal, what avenging of wrong! In everything you demonstrated yourselves to be innocent in the matter.

           

帖前 1:9

因為他們自己已經報明我們是怎樣進到你們那裡, 你們是怎樣離棄偶像歸上帝, 要服事那又真又活的上帝。

I Thess. 1:9

For they themselves report about us what kind of a reception we had with you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve a living and true God,

 

 

  1. 悔改的必需性。Necessity for repentance.

 

a. 悔改一點功勞都沒有。

Repentance may not be thought of as meritorious.      

信心也是一點功勞都沒有。

Faith is not meritorious. Nor is repentance.           

           

17:3

你們要謹慎. 若是你們的弟兄得罪 (), 就勸戒他。他若懊悔就饒恕他。

Luke 17:3

“Be on your guard! If your brother sins, rebuke him; and if he repents, forgive him.

悔改->饒恕。

Repent –> forgive.      

           

3:3            

他就來到約但河一帶地方, 宣講悔改的洗禮, 使罪得赦。

Luke 3:3

And he came into all the district around the Jordan, preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins;

悔改 ->赦免。

Repent –> forgive.     

           

2:38

彼得說, 你們各人要悔改, 奉耶穌基督的名受洗, 叫你們的罪得赦,就必領受所賜的聖靈。

Acts 2:38

Peter {said} to them, “Repent, and each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

 

悔改,受洗 -> 罪得赦免。

Repent, baptize –> forgive.         

           

5:31           

上帝且用右手將祂高舉, (或作祂就是上帝高舉在自己的右邊) 叫祂作君王, 作救主, 將悔改的心, 和赦罪的恩, 賜給以色列人。     

Acts 5:31

“He is the one whom God exalted to His right hand as a Prince and a Savior, to grant repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.

-- 可是,悔改並不是赦免的根據。

-- But repentance is not the ground for forgiveness.

-- 悔改和赦免都是上帝的恩典。

Both repentance and forgiveness are gifts of God.

            

11:18            

眾人聽見這話, 就不言語了。只歸榮耀與上帝, , 這樣看來上帝也賜恩給外邦人, 叫他們悔改得生命了。

Acts 11:18

When they heard this, they quieted down and glorified God, saying, “Well then, God has granted to the Gentiles also the repentance {that leads} to life.”          

           

31:18

我聽見以法蓮為自己悲歎說, 你責罰我, 我便受責罰像不慣 (負軛)的牛犢一樣。求你使我回轉, 我便回轉因為你是耶和華我的上帝。

Jeremiah 31:18

“I have surely heard Ephraim grieving, ‘You have chastised me, and I was chastised, Like an untrained calf; Bring me back that I may be restored, For You are the LORD my God. 

           

43:25            

惟有我為自己的緣故塗抹你的過犯, 我也不記念你的罪惡。

Isaiah 43:25

“I, even I, am the one who wipes out your transgressions for My own sake, And I will not remember your sins.

-- 向上帝悔改 = 我們應盡的義務,即使上帝不赦免!

Repentance to God = owed to God, even without reference to pardon.      

--因為,罪就是得罪上帝。

Simply because sin is against God.              

--上帝喜悅赦免悔改的罪人;這是恩典。

Now God is pleased to forgive sinners who repent; that is grace.     

-- 罪得赦免的根據,不在罪人堙A乃在基督堙C

Ground for pardon is not in sinner, it is in Jesus Christ.    

-- 罪得赦免 = 不再定罪,不再被咒詛。

Pardon = the annulment of judicial sentence of condemnation.     

-- 悔改與赦免的關係,好像信心與赦免的關係。

Repentance sustains the same relationship to forgiveness, as faith.     

-- 信心沒有功勞。悔改也沒有。

Faith is not meritorious. 

 

信心 = 投奔耶穌基督。
FAITH = ABANDONMENT TO JESUS CHRIST.

悔改 = 離棄罪,投奔耶穌基督。

REPENTANCE = ABANDONMENT (self) OF SIN TO CHRIST.

 

悔改和信心 = 如何領受上帝恩典的方法(途徑,器皿)。

Repentance and faith is the way in which we receive God’s grace. 

     

b.  悔改只是領受恩典的方法(不是恩典的根據),但不是可有可無!

Repentance is not, for that reason, dispensable. 

13:3

我告訴你們, 不是的. 你們若不悔改, 都要如此滅亡。

Luke 13:3    

“I tell you, no, but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish.”

           

13:5

我告訴你們, 不是的. 你們若不悔改, 都要如此滅亡。

Luke 13:5

And He {began} telling this parable: “A man had a fig tree which had been planted in his vineyard; and he came looking for fruit on it and did not find any.

-- 悔改是必需的; 不然我們必定滅亡。   

-- Repentance is necessary, lest we perish.             

           

3:18            

信祂的人, 不被定罪。不信的人, 罪已經定了, 因為他不上帝獨生子的名。

 John 3:18

“He who believes in Him is not judged; he who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten      

-- 上帝的兒子。

Son of God.

-- 除了信心以外,別無他路可以得救。

No salvation apart from faith.

-- 悔改和信心是相連的。

Faith and repentance are intertwined. 

--- 因此﹕人要得救, 必需悔改。

Therefore: necessity of repentance for salvation. 

信心和悔改,都沒有功勞。

Neither faith nor repentance = meritorious. 

悔改是以致得救。

REPENTACE is UNTO FORIVENESS OF SINS.

沒有悔改,沒有赦罪。(聖經的說法。)

There is no forgiveness without repentance (Scriptural usage: integral relation). 

慕理﹕上帝赦免我們個別的罪。

* John Murray: Repentance from particular sins. 

慕理﹕我們必需不斷的悔改。

* John Murray: Continuity of repentance.

     

c.  必需宣講悔改的道理

Repentance must be preached. 

例如﹕先知﹕強調悔改。    (可以查經文匯編﹕shub.

Example: Prophets – emphasis on repentance (cf. Concordance on shub). 

施洗約翰,舊約最後的先知。

John the Baptist, last of the Old Testament prophets: 

他所講的道 = 悔改得生命的道理。           

His ministry  = a ministry of repentance unto life. 

耶穌基督宣講悔改的道理。

Jesus Christ preached repentance. 

舊約和新約,只有一個準則。

There is only one standard for both covenants. 

基督為罪死,因為無論在舊約或新約,死都是罪的刑罰。

Christ died because death = penalty under both covenants.

無論在舊約或新約的罪,都必需悔改。

Sin in both covenants must be repented of. 

危險﹕悔改乃是預備(接受上帝的恩典)。

Danger: Repentance as preparationism. 

律法預備我悔改,以致領受恩典。

Law preparing me to repent and to receive grace. 

不是的。上帝的律法和上帝的恩典是不能分開的。

NO.  Law and Gospel are not separated.

沒有律法舊沒有福音;沒有福音,律法也沒有意義。

No gospel without law, but neither should there be law without gospel. 

 

福音派的問題﹕

EVANGELICALS:

宣講赦罪,可是悔改不強調。廉價恩典。           

Forgiveness without repentance.  Cheap grace.

極端加爾文主義﹕悔改,可是沒有赦罪的確據。預備主義。   

HYPER-CALVINISTS:

Repentance without forgiveness.  Preparationism. 

 

 

  1. 信心和悔改的相互關係。Interdependence of faith and repentance.   

 

20:21     

又對猶太人, 和希利尼人, 證明當向上帝悔改, 信靠我主耶穌基督。     

Acts 20:21

solemnly testifying to both Jews and Greeks of repentance toward God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ.

           

11:21

主與他們同在, 信而歸主的人就很多了。

Acts 11:21

And the hand of the Lord was with them, and a large number who believed turned to the Lord.

 

 

閱讀:

《再思救贖奇恩》,第二部分,第四章,『信心與悔改』。

網上閱讀此書:www.godoor.com/book/library/html/theology/zsjsqe/content.html

 

屈臣,《悔改真義》,第一,二,三,四章。頁138

Thomas Watson, The Doctrine of Repentance.  Chapters 2, 3, 4.