029 第二十九課        稱義

Lecture 29                   JUSTIFICATION

 

 

稱義JUSTIFICATION

 

 

A.  稱義的教義的重要性。Significance of the Doctrine of Justification.

 

1.  稱義是關乎人在上帝面前法律上的地位。

Justification has reference to man’s legal status before God.

            無論是墮落前或墮落後,人都需要被稱義。

Justification has relevance to man both before and after the Fall into sin. 

 

 

B.  稱義是法律上的行動(宣稱)。Justification is a forensic or judicial act. 

 

1.  稱義的基本意義,是﹕宣告某某人為義。

Basic meaning of “justify” dikaioo is “to declare righteous.”

     a.  稱義指一種判斷;不可能指使某某人成為義

The term “justify” is used in reference to judgments where the sense “make   

      just” could not possibly apply.

     

      322

      那時有布西人,蘭族巴拉迦的兒子以利戶,向約伯發怒,因約伯自以為義,   

      不以上帝為義。

Job 32:2

But the anger of Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite, of the family of Ram burned; against Job his anger burned because he justified himself before God.     

 

739

請耶穌的法利賽人看見這事,心婸﹛R這人若是先知,必知道摸他的是誰,是個怎樣的女人,乃是個罪人。

Luke 7:39

Now when the Pharisee who had invited Him saw this, he said to himself, “If this man were a prophet He would know who and what sort of person this woman is who is touching Him, that she is a sinner.”

    

      251-3

      1 人若有爭訟,來聽審判,審判官就要定義人有理,定惡人有罪。

      2惡人若該受責打,審判官就要叫他當面伏在地上,按著他的罪招數責打。

      3 只可打他四十下,不可過數,若過數,便是輕賤你的弟兄了。

Deut. 25:1-3

1 “If there is a dispute between men and they go to court, and the judges decide their case, and they justify the righteous and condemn the wicked,

2 then it shall be if the wicked man deserves to be beaten, the judge shall then

make him lie down and be beaten in his presence with the number of stripes according to his guilt.

3 “He may beat him forty times {but} no more, so that he does not beat him with many more stripes than these and your brother is not degraded in your eyes.

     

1715

      定惡人為義的,定義人為惡的,這都為耶和話所憎惡。

Prov. 17:15

He who justifies the wicked and he who condemns the righteous, both of them alike are an abomination to the LORD.

 

     b. 稱義的相反詞是定罪。

Justification is used in contrast with condemnation.

     

251-3(見上) Deut. 25:1-3 (see above)   

1715(見上) Proverbs 17:15 (see above)

         

      王上832

求你在天上垂聽,判斷你的僕人,定惡人有罪,照他所行的報應在他頭上。定義人有理,照他的義賞賜他。

I Kings 8:32

then hear in heaven and act and judge Your servants, condemning the wicked by bringing his way on his own head and justifying the righteous by giving him according to his righteousness.

         

            516

因一人犯罪就定罪,也不如恩賜。原來審判是由一人而定罪,恩賜乃是由許多過犯而稱義。

Rom. 5:16

The gift is not like {that which came} through the one who sinned; for on the one hand the judgment {arose} from one {transgression} resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the free gift {arose} from many transgressions resulting in justification.

   

      833-34

      33 誰能控告上帝所揀選的人呢?由上帝稱他們為義了。

34 誰能定他們的罪呢?有基督耶穌已經死了,而且從死奡_活,現今在上帝的右邊,也替我們祈求。

Rom. 8:33, 34

      33 Who will bring a charge against God's elect? God is the one who justifies;

34 who is the one who condemns? Christ Jesus is He who died, yes, rather who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who also intercedes for us.

 

     c. 與稱義有關的詞,都意味著一種主動(積極)的判斷。 

Expressions used in correlation to justification (parallels) imply an active    

judgment. 

     

      1432

      求你不要審問僕人。因為在你面前凡活著的人,沒有一個是義的。

Psalm 143:2

And do not enter into judgment with Your servant, For in Your sight no man living is righteous.

   

            833

      誰能控告上帝所揀選的人呢?由上帝稱他們為義了。

Rom. 8:33

      Who will bring a charge against God's elect? God is the one who justifies. 

 

            319-20

19 我們曉得律法上的話,都是對律法以下之人說的,好塞住各人的口,叫普世的人都伏在上帝審判之下。

20 所以凡有血氣的沒有一個,因行律法,能在上帝面前稱義。因為律法本是叫人知罪。

Rom. 3:19-20

19  Now we know that whatever the Law says, it speaks to those who are under the Law, so that every mouth may be closed and all the world may become accountable to God;

20 because by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified in His sight; for through the Law {comes} the knowledge of sin.

 

     d.  稱義的同意詞﹕歸算義。

Synonymous expression used in sense of “justify”  to impute righteousness.

         

43

經上說什麼呢?說﹕亞伯拉罕信上帝,這就算為他的義。
Rom. 4:3

For what does the Scripture say? "ABRAHAM BELIEVED GOD, AND IT WAS CREDITED TO HIM AS RIGHTEOUSNESS."

           

            45-6

            5 惟有不做工的,只信稱罪人為義的上帝,他的信就算為義。

            6 正如大衛稱那在行為以外,蒙上帝算為義的人是有福的。

Rom. 4:5, 6

5 But to the one who does not work, but believes in Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is credited as righteousness,

6 just as David also speaks of the blessing on the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works:

  

411

並且他受了割禮的記號,作他未受割禮的時候因信稱義的印證,叫他作一切未受割禮而信之人的父,使他們也算為義。

Rom. 4:11

and he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while uncircumcised, so that he might be the father of all who believe without being circumcised, that righteousness might be credited to them,

    

      林後519-21

19 這就是上帝在基督堙A叫世人與自己和好,不將他們的過犯歸到他們身上。並且將這和好的道理託付了我們。

20 所以我們作基督的使者,就好像上帝藉我們勸你們一般。我們替基督求你們與上帝和好。

      21 上帝叫那無罪的,替我們成為罪。好叫我們在他堶惘足陘W帝的義。

II Cor. 5:19-21

19 namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and He has committed to us the word of reconciliation.

20 Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were making an appeal through us; we beg you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God.

21 He made Him who knew no sin {to be} sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

 

2.  稱義有時候也指使人成為義。

“Justify” occasionally may mean “to make righteous.”

林前611

你們中間也有人從前是這樣。但如今你們奉主耶穌基督的名,並藉著我們上帝的義,已經洗淨,成聖稱義了。

I Cor. 6:11

Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.  

 

3.  稱義的意義與法律有關;稱義的根據不影響這意義。

Forensic sense of justification is not affected by the ground of justification.

     

4.  基督教(宗教改革)與天主教的爭辯,不在稱義的本質,乃在稱義的根據。

Controversy with Rome is not on the nature of justification as forensic, but on the

      ground of justification.

 

 

閱讀:

 

慕理,《再思救贖奇恩》,第二部分,第五章,『稱義』。

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