(A Church History Perspective) PART 1
I．我們是基督新教PROTESTANTISM: We are Protestants
1517 馬丁路德 – 宗教改革
Martin Luther – The Protestant Reformation
天主教 vs. 基督教 （基督新教）之別﹕ Roman Catholicism vs. Protestantism:
1 . 至高權威﹕《聖經》？或《聖經》 + 教會的教導權威（教皇+會議）？
Highest authority: Bible? Or the Bible+church’s teaching authority (Pope+ councils)? The magisterium of the church = the church’s teaching authority
2 . 耶穌基督救贖功勞如何獲得﹕只藉信心？或信心+行為（聖禮）？
How to receive the benefits of the redemption accomplished by Jesus Christ on the cross: through faith only? Or faith plus works (sacraments)?
The mediator between God and man: only one (Christ)? Or many (Christ + saints)?
We are Protestants by conviction, not by convenience.
ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY: We Are Orthodox Christians
「正統」 = 走在正的道路上。Orthodox = “right way.”
Our definition of “orthodoxy”: Bible-believing.
background: Many Christians in the
The 2nd and 3rd generation after Luther and Calvin =the period of Protestant orthodoxy
(Lutheran orthodoxy, Reformed/Calvinist orthodoxy); they systematized the Protestant faith
Implication: liberalism, neo-orthodoxy and neo-evangelicalism are NOT orthodox.
John Frame (personal remark to author): It is becoming increasingly difficult to determine whether a scholar is orthodox today, especially in hermeneutics and exegesis.
However, when we discern a theological position or a belief, we do not at the same time make a judgment as to whether a person who holds such a belief is saved or not.
J. Greshem Machen, Christianity and Liberalism. 梅欽，《基督教真偽辨》，改革宗。
Cornelius Van Til, Christianity and Barthianism.
ECUMENICITY: We Believe in the Ecumenical (Holy Catholic) Church
The orthodox Christian faith is often formulated because of the rise of heresies, and through the church’s response to heresy.
The ecumenical councils of the church, especially the first four (Nicene Council and the Chalcedon Council, etc.), made decisions on the Christian faith which Protestants accept.
we do not identify with the “ecumenical movement” embodied in the World Council
of Churches, and the National Council of Churches of Christ
IV．我們是福音派EVANGELICALISM: We Are Evangelicals
「福音派」 (Evangelical) 一詞有多種不同的用法﹕
There are many ways in which the word “evangelical” is used:
歐洲，拉丁美洲，非律賓﹕「福音派」一詞 = 基督教（新教）的意思。
Then came the 2nd and 3rd generation of the Evangelical Awakening.
Evangelicals in the Church of England = Low Church Anglicans.
2003: Evangelicals in the Church of England, and Third-World Anglican leaders, are considering leaving the Anglican Communion.
Low Church’s mission society = Church Missionary Society.
Some sociologists of religion defined “evangelicalism” this way 1990s: Evangelicals put an emphasis on prayer, reading the Bible, the necessity of the born-again “conversion experience”, and the importance of evangelism and missions. This is an accurate description, but not an adequate (sufficient) definition! Anybody who likes Billy Graham!
Evangelicalism is simply orthodox Christian faith and life.
V．敬虔主義 ﹕我們追求與神親密PIETISM: We Seek Intimacy with God
In every generation in church history, there are some/many Christians who are hungry and thirsty or a more direct, a more intimate experience of God. This is proper and good.
宗教改革之後追求與神親密的運動﹕The Protestant search for intimacy: several waves.
第一波﹕英國的清教徒運動。 1st wave: English Puritans -1558-1710
第二波﹕荷蘭的敬虔主義 。2nd wave: from England, it spread to Dutch Pietism.
第三波﹕德國的敬虔主義。 3rd wave (most famous): German Pietism:
Spener, Francke, in
By the 19th century, Pietism took on some added characteristics:
反主流宗派 Anti-denominational (free church)
這是最早期的敬虔運動沒有強調的。This was not emphasized by the earlier Pietists.
(A Church History Perspective) – PART 2
19th - 20th Century Reformed Apologetics Provides Leadership:
We Believe that the Bible Does Stand the Test and Challenge of Intellectuals
1790年代 – 康德；破碎了宇宙﹕現象界與真理界。
1790s – Immanuel Kant – the universe is shattered: phenomenal (logic+science); noumenal (religion+morality)
1790年代 – 士萊馬赫 Friedrich Schleiermacher。
現代（新派）神學的開始 ﹕宗教的本質乃是，人感覺依靠宇宙中的「絕對的」。– father of modern theology (essence of Christianity = feeling of dependence on “the infinite”)
Archibald Alexander – 1st president
Charles Hodge 賀治 – wrote Systematic Theology 《系統神學》。
Benjamin B. Warfield (B.B. Warfield) 華爾費德 – wrote many book reviews
A.A. Hodge – Charles Hodge’s son
Hodge and Warfield were the leaders in apologetic vs. liberal theology, in 19th century.
B.B. Warfield’s essays, collected in The Inspiration and Authority of the Bible, are still the classic defense of the Bible’s inspiration.
American society and culture in the 19th century were led by American “Calvinism”
exemplified by the Presbyterian Church.
Abraham Kuyper 訪問美國，在普林斯頓大學演講 。
In 1898, the Prime
Minister of the
Abraham Kuyper, Lectures in Calvinism (Eerdmans)
Kuyper warned the American church: the history of human civilization will always be a battle between the worship of the true God, and idol-worship.
不幸地，美國走實用主義的路線 (William James 與 杜威，杜威1920-21訪華)。
Cf. a major book in American history; Anti-Intellectualism in American Life.
胡適﹕少談一些主義，多談一些問題 （胡適 = 杜威的門徒）。Hu Shi (Dewey’s disciple in China): talk less about “-ism’s” (ideologies), more on solving practical problems.
Result: Although Hodge, Warfield and Kuyper defended and expounded the Christian faith, the American church continued to be fundamentally pragmatic. The Chinese church inherited this kind of anti-intellectual, anti-rational, anti-theological, anti-cultural attitude. Result: theological thought and theological education have been impoverished till now.
Note: A Christian who is a Pietist, who seeks an intimate relationship with God, does not necessarily has to be anti-intellectual, anti-rational, anti-culture, and anti-theological.
FUNDAMENTALISM: We Are Fundamentalists
Before 1860 (before the
Civil War, 1861-65): there was no division between fundamentalists and liberals
Example: The founder of
The Reformed Presbyterian
The controversy between liberal theology and evangelicals occurred from 1870.
新派從歐洲到達美國﹕1870年代（士萊馬赫 F. Schleiermacher，費爾巴哈 Ludwig Feuerbach，達爾文 Charles Darwin等）。
Liberal theology came
Dispensationalism also came to
時代論Dispensationalism – 達秘J.N. Darby 愛爾蘭牧師， 1827-31創立時代論神學
Dispenational theology began with John Nelson Darby, Irish pastor, ca. 1827-31.
福音派的回應﹕《基要》小冊子系列The Fundamentals （1900年代）。
Evangelical response to liberalism: series of booklets, called The Fundamentals (1900s).
長老會﹕1888年 Charles Briggs 事件– 長老會大多數反對自由派的神學思想。
Presbyterians: 1888 – forced Charles Briggs (liberal professor, Union Seminary) to resign; conservatives were the majority in the Presbyterian Church.
Liberal-fundamentalist controversy came to a head (climax) in the 1920s.
1920 – Bible Union of China （中國）。
長老會﹕1924年The Auburn Affirmation,
In 1924, over 100
Presbyterian ministers issued “The Auburn Affirmation” in
In 1929, J. Gresham Machen and 3 other professors at Princeton Theological Seminary were forced to leave. They started Westminster Theological Seminary. www.wts.edu
1925年，達拉斯神學院成立Dallas Theological Seminary, 與威敏斯特神學院同樣是基要信仰的，是時代論神學圈子的領袖。
In 1925, Dallas
Theological Seminary was started in
1932: some conservatives under Machen’s leadership started the Independent Board of Presbyterian Missions.
1936年梅欽被迫離開長老會，成立信正長老會 (Presbyterian Church of America -> Orthodox Presbyterian Church – www.opc.org )
In 1936, J. Gresham Machen was defrocked, and left the Presbyterian Church USA to start the Presbyterian Church of America (renamed Orthodox Presbyterian Church).
1937年﹕信正長老會分裂，聖經長老會成立 (Orthodox Presbyterian Church -> Bible Presbyterian Church)。
In the same year, the Orthodox Presbyterian Church split; one group left under the leadership of Carl McIntyre and started the Bible Presbyterian Church.
浸信會，1948年 — 一部分保守派人士離開浸禮宗（ Northern Baptist Convention
->Conservative Baptist Association） 。
This kind of liberal-conservative split was not limited to the Presbyterians. In 1948, some
churches from the Northern Baptist Convention left, and formed the Conservative Baptist Association.
（注﹕浸禮宗 = 美北浸信會。 Northern Baptist Convention -> American Baptist Churches USA.）
In 1973, a group of
churches in the Presbyterian Church in the
1970年代﹕美南浸信會內部之爭開始，至到今天﹕保守派與所謂緩和派conservatives vs. moderates – 後者可能是新正統派。
The struggle in the Southern Baptist Convention began to surface in the 1970s – conservatives struggled with the moderates (liberals) over who should head the denomination and the denomination’s seminaries (a conservative leader today is Al Mohler, president, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky)
1970年代﹕路得會內部之爭﹕協和神學院，保守派守住 Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod: Concordia Theological Seminary; 緩和（新）派被逐，成立「放逐協和神學院」 Seminex = Seminary in Exile = Concordia Theological Seminary (in exile) 。
In the 1970s, there was a theological struggle between the conservatives and the moderates in the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. The moderates (liberals) lost control over Concordia Theological Seminary, and formed “Seminex” (seminary-in-exile), also named Concordia Theological Seminary.
1930-1940年代﹕福音派的 “失敗” – 失去控制主流宗派權。
By and large, however, in the 1930s and 1940s, evangelicals lost control and leadership over the major (mainline) denominations.
In the 1940s, evangelicals began to re-organize themselves: some remained in the mainline denominations; some started new conservative denominations (OPC, Conservative Baptists, etc.); others started independent churches; others formed parachurch agencies.
THE MISSIONS MOVEMENT: We Believe in the Imperative of Global Missions
1806-1811 Students at Williams College and elsewhere in New England petitioned the
Congregational Church to start a sending agency. Result: first American mission board:
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
1858-60 Dwight L. Moody quit his shoe sales business, began large-scale evangelistic preaching minsitry
1870s, 1880s: Moody deeply influenced numerous university students, Britain and USA.
1883 基督徒學生海外宣教自願運動成立 。
1883 Students formed the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions (SVM).
1888 神學生海外宣教自願運動成立。 Inter-Seminary Alliance was organized by seminary students.
1840-50年代 YMCA 基督教青年會在英國，美國成立；SCM – 學生基督徒運動是青年會的學生部；1890年代後被新派神學影響 – 中國的基督教青年會，1895成立。
1840s-1850s – YMCA was started in England and America. Student Christian Movement = the student arm of the YMCA.
1890s and later: the YMCA was influenced and even controlled by theological liberals.
China’s YMCA was started in 1895.
Bible schools (Bible colleges) were started as a result of revival, student movement and missions movement. (Note: the Bible College is the traditional form of Chinese theological education.)
初期的《聖經》學院 = 速成班，與主流教會的神學院抗衡。
Bible schools began as short-term training in reaction against theological seminaries.
芝加哥﹕慕迪聖經學院。Chicago: Moody Bible Institute
紐約﹕宣信牧師，宣道會的宣教工人訓練學校。New York City (AB Simpson, Christian and Missionary Alliance): Missionary Training Institute -> Nyack Missionary College -> Nyack College + Jaffray School of Missions -> Alliance School of Theology and Missions
-> Nyack College, Alliance Theological Seminary.
羅省《聖經》學校。 Southern California: Bible Institute of Los Angeles -> BIOLA University
多倫多《聖經》學院 -> 天道神學院。Canada: Toronto Bible College -> Ontario Bible College, Ontario Theological Seminary -> Tyndale College and Seminary
Most Bible colleges were established in the 1930s and 1940s: most of them were dispensationalist, anti-intellectual, anti-cultural. They embodied/embody the anti-intellectual and anti-cultural spirit of Pietism.
WHO ARE WE? The Evangelical’s Identity
(A Church History Perspective) – PART 3
IX．「新福音派」與 「認信的福音派」﹕《聖經》無誤之爭 ﹕
NEO-EVANGELICALISM VS. CONFESSING EVANGELICALISM:
THE BATTLE FOR THE BIBLE: WE BELIEVE THE BIBLE IS INERRANT
1943: The National Association of Evangelicals was established: included those who stayed in mainline denominations and those who left.
1945 第二次世界大戰結束，福音派軍人（大學生）宣教負擔，宣教機構成立﹕世界宣明會World Vision, 青年歸主 Youth For Christ, 學園傳道會Campus Crusade for Christ.
1945 End of World War II: many soldiers found Christ during the war (on America’s warships). They return to America and return to college with a missionary zeal. Late 1940s many mission organizations were started: World Vision, Youth For Christ ( Billy Graham, Torrey Johnson, etc.), Campus Crusade for Christ (Bill Bright).
1947 Fuller Theological Seminary was started by a radio preacher, Charles Fuller. President: Harold Ockenga, pastor, Park Street Church (Congregationalist), Boston (!). He commuted!
Early professors included Carl Henry, Harold Lindsell.
1949 Billy Graham Los Angeles Crusade: launched Graham’s worldwide ministry.
Evangelical Theological Society – the only basis of faith was the Bible’s inerrancy.
1955﹕《今日基督教》雜誌成立 Christianity Today magazine﹕ 福音派的喉舌（葛培理的岳父 Dr. Nelson Bell是創辦人，美南長老會宣教士，醫生，長老）。
1955 Christianity Today magazine was started as a voice for evangelicals – semi-academic. A founder was Billy Graham’s father-in-law, Dr. Nelson Bell, a Southern Presbyterian (PCUS) medical doctor, missionary, elder.
1960-70年代﹕薛華 Francis Schaeffer 向青年（包括嬉皮士）傳福音 – Escape From Reason, The God Who Is There 中譯﹕《理性的規避》，《前車可鑒》。
1960s, 1970s: Francis Schaeffer loved and reached out to the youth of the Hippie Culture: Wrote Escape from Reason; The God Who is There; etc.
1976﹕卡特 Jimmy Carter當選美國總統﹕第一位福音派總統。
1976: Jimmy Carter was elected: he was America’s first born-again evangelical President.
同時期有政治野心的福音派領袖﹕Jerry Falwell, Moral Majority; Pat Robertson (700 Club); James Dobson, Focus on the Family
Others with possible presidential political ambition: Jerry Falwell, the Moral Majority; Pat Robertson (700 Club), James Dobson, Focus on the Family etc.
Evangelical seminaries bursting at the seams; liberal seminaries losing students.
1972新派教會人士著書﹕解釋保守教會為什麼增長？Kelly, Why Conservative Churches Are Growing – written by someone associated with the National Council of Churches – liberals take notice of conservative growth!
Note: Now, evangelicals have the numbers, power and influence, but …
1965 Fuller Theological Seminary: some professors no longer confess in the Bible’s inerrancy; a church history professor translated Karl Barth’s Church Dogmatics into English.
1967 福音派與富樂神學教授會議 Wenham, Massachusetts；達不成協議。
1967 – Some theologians were concerned, and invited Fuller professors to a meeting held in Wenham, Massachusetts: no agreement was possible between the two camps.
1970年代— 國際《聖經》無誤協會成立 。
Thus in the 1970s, those leaders who believed in inerrancy, formed the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy.
Chicago Statement on Biblical Hermeneutics 芝加哥《聖經》解釋宣言 www.chinahorizon.org
Chicago Statement on Biblical Application
In 1980, Bernard Ramm announced his Barthian viewpoint in his Beyond Fundamentalism
1980-81 Carver Yu (China Graduate School of Theology) introduced liberal theology, including Karl Barth, in a series of articles appearing in Chinese Churches Today magazine.
Harold Lindsell, The Battle for the Bible
Norman Geisler, Inerrancy
J.I. Packer, Beyond the Battle for the Bible
J.I. Packer, Truth and Power
1996 Cambridge Declaration – Association of Confessing Evangelicals 《劍橋宣言》。
X．福音派內部信念方面的分類 Varieties of Evangelical Conviction
改革宗，阿米念主義 Reformed/Calvinism vs. Arminianism﹕
Reformed/Calvinism vs. Arminianism: Did God elect his chosen people, and gave them the power/ability to believe? Or does man have both the choice and ability to choose Christ?
改革宗，時代論Reformed/Covenant Theology vs. Dispensationalism: 舊約與新約時期的救法是完全不同嗎？還是基本上有連貫性？耶穌基督來之後，上帝還對以色列有特別的應許與計劃嗎？教會是一個意外，上帝驚奇地，因以色列民拒絕基督而將福音向外邦人傳？抑或耶穌基督是真以色列，基督徒都是真正守割禮的真以色列人？
Reformed/Covenant Theology vs. Dispensationalism: Do the Old and New Testament reveal totally different plans/methods of salvation? Or is there a fundamental unity/continuity between the Old and the New Testaments? After the 1st coming of Christ, does God still have a special promise and special plan for the Jewish people? Is the church an accident, because God was surprised that the Jewish people rejected the Messiah (Jesus Christ) – so he sent the gospel to the Gentiles? Or rather is it that, Jesus Christ is the true Isreel, and all true Christians are truly circumcised, true Jews?
護教學﹕預設派，證據派。 In apologetics: Presuppositionalism vs. Evidentialism
預備設派 Presuppositionalists﹕范泰爾 Cornelius Van Til (www.reformed.org,
www.wts.edu) ，薛華 Francis Schaeffer (www.covenantseminary.edu,普及者），John
證據派 Evidentialists ﹕Norman Geisler, Josh McDowell
另﹕靠理性論據的古典派。 Classical Apologetics: R.C. Sproul
另﹕新興的改革宗認識學派。New: Reformed epistemology: A. Plantinga, Nicholas Woltersdorff
Paedobaptist vs. Believer’s baptism; sprinkling vs. immersion
The distinction between the so-called “conservatives” vs. the charismatics.
靈恩運動﹕第一波，第二波，第三波Charismatics: 1st wave, 2nd wave, 3rd wave
Traditional vs. contemporary worship music, or blended worship? (Dr. Barry Liesch at www.worshipinfo.com; the late Dr. Robert Webber.)
婦女按立問題﹕聖經女權運動，男人為頭觀點（見女人與事奉一書，Susan Foh 的論述），或傳統觀點。
Women’s ordination: biblical feminism? Male headship? Traditional view?
(Council for Biblical Manhood and Womanhood, read the Danvers Statement at: www.cbmw.org)
XI．不同世紀興起的宗派DENOMINATIONS BY CENTURY
16th century: Luther/Lutherans, Calvin/Reformed, Presbyterian, Congregationalist, Henry VIII/Anglican (Episcopalian), Anabaptists (Mennonites, Amish)
17th century: Congregationalist -> Baptists; Unitarians (today: Unitarian-Universalists)
18th century: Methodists; European denominations -> US/Canada; Moravians
19th century: Salvation Army; Restoration movements (heresies: Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Church of Christ, 7th day Adventists) – Disciples of Christ/Christian Church;
The Brethren churches/movement; breakaway from state church -> Evangelical Free Church (Norway), Evangelical Covenant Church (Sweden); German Baptists -> Baptist General Conference; mission societies, student volunteer movement, YMCA
二十世紀﹕神召會（五旬節派 = 靈恩運動第一波）；保守的浸信會，保守的長老會（信正長老會，聖經長老會，PCA等）；保守的路德宗；衛斯理會和保守的衛理宗；保守的聖公會；聖經教會（福音堂）；靈恩運動第三波﹕葡萄園團契，等。
20th century: Pentecostalists/Assemblies of God; conservative Presbyterians, Baptists, Lutherans, Wesleyans/Methodists, Anglicans; Bible churches/chapels; Third-Wave charismatics: Vineyard Christian Fellowship, etc.
PSYCHOLOGY AND THE BIBLE
A Penetrating Analysis of Non-Christian Thought（溫習Review）
Christian Thought. The scope of Christian thought includes knowledge of God, knowledge of self, and knowledge of the world. What is knowledge? Not just intellectual pursuit of facts; not just philosophical speculation. Knowledge which pleases God is “covenant obedience.” (John M. Frame, The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God; The Doctrine of God.) We must know God, ourselves, and the world in such a way that we obey and submit to his Word, both in our method (science) and in our interpretation (art). (Richard Pratt, Every Thought Captive.)
All man’s thought is based on “presuppositions,” or his “worldview.” A worldview is our “heart commitment”: What is man? Where do man’s problems and needs come from? Where do solutions to problems come from?
The “heart commitment” of non-Christian thought: autonomy. Man is committed to be independent, autonomous from God. Since man sinned and fall, he refuses to submit under God’s authority. He is his own law (auto – nomos), his own authority. “Autonomy” has been the most fundamental principle, the “heart commitment,” or the “presupposition” in all non-Christian thought ever since the Garden of Eden, and especially in modern thought and culture (1500-1980). (Francis Schaeffer, How Should We Then Live; Pratt.)
Psychology since Sigmund Freud has absorbed the post-Kantian “heart commitment.” Immanuel Kant: Man cannot know (absolute) truth through science and reason. Science and reason can only know the outward of things. Religious and ethical truth (God, eternal life, love, free will) is known “beyond” science and reason. Thus, psychology’s presuppositions include: naturalism (denying the supernatural), materialism (denying the soul and God’s existence), determinism (denying God’s and man’s freedom as causes), evolution (denying creation), logical positivism (denying the authority of God’s Word as method in knowledge), relativism (denying the existence of absolute truth) and humanism (denying God’s sovereignty in everything), according to Baker’s Dictionary of Psychology and Counseling.
Note. The opposite of monism is not dualism! The opposite of monism is the Bible’s view of the world: (a) God is God, God is creator of the universe; (b) man and the universe are created by God; (c) there is an absolute distinction between the Creator and all creation. (Cf. the works of Cornelius Van Til.)
II. 心理學是什麼？What is Psychology?
Psychology evolved from a “science” (a “social science,” a “behavioral science,” or a “pseudo-science”) to an eager sales force for New Age philosophy. But the “New Age” worldview actually predates the beginning of psychology.
Psychology is a “pseudo-science.” Science observes data according to a theory which seeks to interpret the data. The data analyzed should be repeatable and verifiable. Psychology’s definitions, data and explanations are often subjective. (Note: Whether it is conventional science or pseudo-science, man is committed to his own autonomy, unless science is redeemed and rebuilt with biblical presuppositions.)
到「後現代」。不過，「後現代」在「現代」之前就有了。（參﹕張逸萍博士的著作﹕www.chinesechristiandiscernment.net; www.chinesebiblicalcounseling.net。）Psychology evolved from being “modern” (post-Kantian, asserting man’s autonomy over against God and all God-ordained authority) to “postmodern” (monism). But the “postmodern” actually pre-dates the modern. (Lois Chan, Unholy Alliance. www.chinesechristiandiscernment.net; www.chinesebiblicalcounseling.net.)
Major theorists in the history of psychology: Sigmund Freund (psychoanalysis), Carl Jung, Alfred Adler (cognitive psychology), Carl Rogers (non-directive, client-centered therapy), and Eric Fromm.
Some names of “Christian counseling” theorists: Gary Collins, James Dobson.
III． 輔導是什麼？What is Counseling?
Can counseling be really “non-directive”? Non-directive counseling is non-counseling counseling! (The idea of “non-directive counseling” comes from Carl Rogers, a humanist, and is very commonly adopted by Christian counseling and counseling centers.)
The myth of “mental illness”: what is “illness”? It is when you can observe a problem, prescribe medicine or do surgery. Counseling is just talk! (This critique of psychological counseling is raised not only by conservative Christians, but also secular writers, including Jews and atheists!) Of course, Jesus speaks of “illness” as a metaphor.
Counseling is “talk;” it is “talk” with an ethical perspective. Secular psychological counseling, based on secular theories, is “non-biblical ethics.”
Non-biblical counseling’s goals: “equilibrium” (Freud), “self-esteem,” “self-acceptance,” or “mental health” (whatever that means).
IV． 事情的成因與影響因素Influences and Causation
For 30+ years, Jay E. Adams has been misquoted and maligned for saying that all counseling problems are due to sin; there are no physical factors involved. This cannot be further from the truth! From his first book, Competent to Counsel, he has said that there are factors related to the human body. (Adams’ website: www.timelesstexts.com .)
Works by physicians and psychiatrists who have joined the Biblical counseling movement: Robert Smith, A Christian Counselor’s Medical Desk Reference; Payne, The Healing of Modern Medicine; and Gary Almy, How Christian is Christian Counseling?.
The family, obviously, is an important influence on behavior; but it is not the only influence. Certainly, it is an influence (injury) which Christ’s power can overcome! Other factors: heredity, adult experiences, and the body/brain. (Cf. Ed Welch, Blame It On the Brain?)
These factors are as wide as the universe, which includes: (a) man’s body; (b) the spiritual realm (of Satan and the demons); (c) the physical universe; and (d) man’s soul (spiritual = behavioral factors). All are under God’s sovereign control (under his “providence”).
Presuppositions Revisited: Good Intentions Are Not Good Enough
羅12﹕2 Romans 12:2
“Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is goo and acceptable and perfect.”
約壹4﹕1 I John 4:1
“Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are from God, for many false prophets have gone out into the world.”
Many of us are Christians involved in some form of counseling work or ministry. As born-again Christians, the Holy Spirit dwells in us, illumines us, and corrects our wrong understanding of the truth. The vast majority of us have very good motives to help people, and to reach out to society with the love of Christ. That is why we spend the time to attend seminars such as this one on “Psychology and the Bible.” We believe that the Holy Spirit led you to come to this seminar.
Our good intentions, and the Holy Spirit’s illumination in our lives,
however, do not change the fact that most Christians entertain notions,
concepts and “presuppositions” (worldviews) which are contrary to what
Scripture teaches. Counselors need to study the
doctrines (teachings) which Scripture proclaims – i.e., study sound,
Bible-based theology, if we are going to be mature and effective. Thus, while we do not judge your motives and
your goal to help people (and you certainly didn’t wake up one day and say, “I
am going to become a follower of pagan, demonic religion”), we do challenge you
to re-think your worldview.
If this were not a seminar on “Psychology and the Bible,” but a seminar for pastors on “Marketing and the Church Growth Movement,” we will point out to the pastors who come (who have every good intention to spread the gospel and bring people into the church) that, despite their good intentions, what they learn about church growth techniques from many seminaries (especially Doctor of Ministry programs) is nothing more than advertising and marketing techniques from the business world of capitalism. While we do not judge the pastors’ intentions, we would challenge their presuppositions!
The fact is, most Christian professors of counseling (with the exception of a small minority who belong to the “nouthetic (biblical) counseling movement”, teach from the theoretical perspective of secular psychology. “Integration of psychology and Christianity” is a failure; it is inevitable. We need the Holy Spirit’s illumination to cleanse us from these anti-Biblical, anti-God concepts. The best, most ideal situation is that we absorb Bible doctrine, and learn the principles of Biblical apologetics, during our secondary school years. Then we are prepared to filter wrong concepts when we study psychology at the university.
Let us take an example: What is man? How do major psychologists answer this question? Sigmund Freud – man is a combination of contradicting desires and drives (the drive for life: sex; and the drive for death: murder). Freud fiercely opposes and despises Christianity. Carl Rogers – the self is the sum total of our past experiences – Rogers does not believe that the soul exists. B.F. Skinner (behaviorism) and contemporary studies on the brain and the body – man is a body, just like an animal. New Age philosophy/psychology – man is God.
“Mind Over Matter” – the Power of Thinking
賽55﹕10-11 Isaiah 55:10-11
“For as the rain and the snow come down from heaven and do not return there but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater, so shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it.”
弗1﹕11 Ephesians 1:11
“In him we have obtained an inheritance, having been predestined according to the purpose of him who works all things according to the counsel of his will.”
Many psychologists and most New Age writers believe in the “power of the mind.” What you think affects what will happen to you – you can “think” the future into existence.
If “mind over matter” means that what we think can control the physical world (our bodies, our circumstances, etc.), then only God has that power. Only God – the God of the Bible – has that power rightfully and absolutely. When God thinks and says something, he brings things into existence. God says “Let there be light,” and there is light. God Word is the Word of the Lord; it is a sovereign, all-powerful Word. Only God has absolute power of “mind over matter” (Isaiah 55:10-11). God does all things according to the counsel of his will (Eph. 1:5, 9, 11).
God created man in his own image (Gen. 1:26-28). God is infinite, man is infinite, but man is God’s image. We do bear some resemblance to God’s character. Therefore, man’s mind and man’s thoughts are “analogical to” (an image of) God’s mind and God’s thoughts. Of course, God’s thoughts are not our thoughts, and his ways are not our ways (Isaiah 55:8-9) – he is infinite, we are not; he is sovereign, we are not; he is sinless, we are not. So our minds do not “create” things into being (unless we are controlled by an evil spirit). We are to use our minds in submission to his revelation, in “covenant obedience.”
Any attempt to teach man to use his mind to control matter, is suspect of usurping the power that only God rightfully exercises. That is why God forbids sorcery and witchcraft (Deut. Chapter 18). New Age philosophy, in fact, believes that we ARE God, so we should think and act as if we ARE God. This is blasphemy!
We should learn to “think God’s thoughts after God” – in other words, in faith and in obedience to Scripture. (Cf. John M. Frame, The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God; and the writings of Cornelius Van Til.)
Identity and What Others Think of Me – A Biblical Model
箴1﹕2-7 Proverbs 1:2-7
“To know wisdom and instruction, to understand words of insight, to receive instruction in wise dealing, in righteousness, justice and equity; to give prudence to the simple, knowledge and discretion to the youth – Let the wise hear and increase in learning, and the one who understand obtain guidance, to understand a proverb and a saying, the words of the wise and their riddles. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction.”
申6﹕4-9 Deuteronomy 6:4-9
“Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one. You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. And these words that I command you today shall be on your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise. You shall bind them as a sign on your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall write them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates.”
Should we pay any attention to what others think about us? Sometimes yes, but we should not be enslaved by fear of what others think of us. Many of us are enslaved by three thoughts: (a) others may see the real me; (b) others may not accept me, but reject me; (c) others may hurt me, emotionally, physically, sexually. (Cf. When People Are Big and God is Small, www.prpbooks.com, www.ccef.org.) The only way to become liberated from this three-fold fear and slavery, is to fear God first.
However, what other people think of us, may be very helpful and necessary. God has established several covenant-institutions when he created the world: marriage and family; work and government; and rest and worship (Gen. 1:26-2:3). Parents are to teach their children to fear and obey God (Deut. 6:4-9); teachers are to teach students wisdom and knowledge (“covenant obedience”); the government should reward those who do good, and punish those who do evil (Rom. 13). Therefore, these authority-figures which God has ordained, will make judgments of men, women and children. This is their duty!
Within the covenant, God tells us who we are – our true identity comes from God (Romans chapter 8, Ephesians chapters 2-3). Our true identity comes from our understanding of death, and where we go after death (I Cor. Chapters 4-5). When the issue of our eternal destiny is settled, then we have our true identity – we have a “strong self-esteem.” We are joyful, we are thankful, because “this world is not my home” (Heb. 11:11-16). Our self-understanding is based on gratitude to God’s grace – all that we have, we owe to Christ.
Another way of putting this is: We are to “deny ourselves, take up the cross, and follow Christ.” This is our true identity.
Sin and Salvation – What is the Gospel?
羅8﹕29 Romans 8:29
“For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.”
A professor at Biola University (La Mirada, California) is quoted as saying that: sin is when our needs are not fulfilled, and when we do not realize our potential. Biola is home to the Rosemead School of Psychology. Like Fuller Theological Seminary’s School of Psychology, Rosemead believes in the so-called “integration” of psychology with the Christian faith.
But can secular theories of psychology become truly “integrated” with the Bible’s teaching? This professor’s words have totally twisted what the Bible teaches about sin. Sin is rebellion against God. Sin is the lack of conformity to, and transgression of, God’s law (Westminster Shorter Catechism). In other words: What God forbids us to do, we do; what God commands us to do, we fail to do. This is sin!
We often confuse our “needs” with “wants.” For example, when a waitress asks me in a restaurant, “Do you need whipped cream on top of your ice cream?” The whipped cream has nothing to do with what I need to exist, to live, to be healthy. It is purely “desire!” We must distinguish between needs and wants.
As for “realizing our potential,” we must measure it against Christ (Rom. 8:29). Our “potential” or “goal” in life, is to be like Christ.
What is salvation? Not self-esteem! But forgiveness of sins, justification through faith, being adopted as God’s child, being an heir of an eternal inheritance, and submitting under the rule of the King, whose Kingdom has come, and will come in fullness.
How Should We Then Live/Counsel?
Examine your own values and beliefs. How do you answer these three questions? (a) What is man? (Is he an animal? Is he God? Is he a bunch of desires? Is he a bunch of experiences?) (b) Where do man’s problems come from? (c) Where do solutions to man’s problem come from?
Equip yourself with sound, Bible-based doctrine (theology). Counselors need theology! Counselors need a firm foundation in a system of Bible-based doctrine.
Equip yourself with Bible doctrine before you attempt to understand and learn secular theories of psychology and counseling.
Join the Biblical counseling movement! Become truly competent to teach God’s Word, and to counsel from Scripture.
For further information: Westminster theological Seminary www.wts.edu, Master’s College MA program www.masters.edu, Christian Counseling and Educational Foundation www.ccef.org, National Association of Nouthetic Counselors www.nanc.org, Dr. Jay Adams’ publishing house www.timelesstexts.org, Chinese-language resources www.chinesebiblicalcounseling.net, www.chinesechristiandiscernment.net.
I．《聖經》輔導的目標 The Goal of Biblical Counseling
1． 《聖經》輔導的目標，不是使人感覺舒服 (如佛洛伊德Freud: equilibrium)。
2． 《聖經》輔導的目標，也不是給人一個積極的自尊心 (positive self-esteem)。
5． 《聖經》輔導是教會傳道事工的一種，是神話預的教導 (the ministry of teaching God’s Word)。弗20﹕20-31﹕或在家中（輔導），或在眾人前（講道）。
6． 有人提出異議﹕《聖經》輔導與傳福音有何不同？這樣說，輔導只不過是傳福音？回答﹕這有什麼壞處？我們不傳福音 / 帶領人作基督徒，要作什麼？
7． 以「病人」和人感受為中心 (client-centered) 的輔導至終是自私和懶惰的。必需向人挑戰﹕不可憑感覺；生活的目標是順服神，建立自律，結果子。
II．誰能輔導？Who Can Counsel?
2． 羅馬書15﹕14 – 基督徒都能勸戒，因有良善與知識 。 Competent to Counsel.
4． 加拉太書6﹕2 – 基督徒必需輔導，挽回在罪中的人。Ready to Restore.
III．聖經輔導的對象 Who Should Receive Biblical Counseling?
2． 慕道朋友。為什麼不可以向他們進行聖經輔導？我們很多時候害怕世人不能接受福音，其實我們的懼怕常常使教會癱瘓 (paralyzed)！
IV．清教徒與輔導 The Puritans and Counseling
1． 清教徒成熟，我們這代信徒不成熟。（巴刻J.I. Packer, The Quest for Godliness.）
2． 為什麼我們不成熟？因為我們對神不認真。（巴刻，《活在聖靈中》, J.I. Packer, Keep in Step with the Spirit.參看聖靈與聖潔一章。）
3． 清教徒﹕一個牧養教會的運動。 A movement of pastors.
4． 清教徒牧師都從事輔導，稱之為靈魂的醫治 - the cure of souls。這方面的著作，最有名的是《天路歷程》；最完備的，是 Richard Baxter, A Christian Directory。
5． 20世紀的最佳例子﹕鍾馬田，《靈性低潮》 (Martin Lloyd-Jones, Spiritual Depression)。輔導的基礎是神的話，《聖經》的真理。
6． 如何應用聖經在不同生活情況上。Casuistry: cases of conscience: applying Scripture.
8． 清教徒與聖經輔導﹕律法主義？Are Puritans/Biblical Counselors Legalistic?
a. 律法主義 = 要求人遵守聖經沒有定下的規條。
V．《聖經》輔導的步驟 – 提後3﹕16 Steps in Biblical Counseling
1． 教導 – 神是怎麼樣的一位上帝，祂的吩咐是什麼。
2． 督責 – 我們如何的犯了罪，得罪了上帝。
3． 使人歸正 – 禱告悔改，立志改過。
4． 教導人學義 – 操練敬虔，有紀律的生活。
VI． 給人們的盼望 There is Hope for You
VII．基督徒與非基督徒的不同 Is a Christian Different from a Non-Christian?
VIII．如何面對家庭背景，如何面對過去 Facing Family Background, Facing Our
IX．如何面對死亡 Facing Death
8． 換言之，我們要靠神的恩典與已去世的親人道別 (Say Good-bye)，從今以後，以感恩來回憶。
9． 一個安息禮拜講道大綱﹕God is God. God is good. God will receive His glory.
X．正視淫亂 The Biblical View on Sexual Sin
1． 淫亂 (fornication) 是指所有的性罪。人都會犯淫亂的罪。
2． 姦淫 (adultery)是違背婚約的行為。已經結婚的人所的罪，稱為姦淫。
3． 淫亂始於淫念 (lust)。我們的大腦是身體裏最有力的器官。犯罪往往從思想開始。
4． 分析﹕淫念是貪心 (greed) 一種。都犯十誡，都是自我中心生活的表現。
5． 如何勝過淫念（貪心）？ 第一，要在神面前承認我們需要聖靈。求聖靈掌管我們的思想。把我們的思想生活，眼睛，雙手，身體每部分交托聖靈，奉獻給祂用。
6． 第二，要操練內心的滿足 (contentment)。人的身體，性別，靈魂，自我 (identity) 都是神所賜的。因此我們需要為這些事感謝神﹕（一）我們的性別（男，女），（二）我們的身體（是神所造的），（三）我們的感情，包括性方面的（都是神所造的，都是好的；只有誤用是才是犯罪），（四）我們的父母親（不論他們如何養育我們）。
7． 第三，要知道自己的軟弱，而加倍警醒。在哪些情況下我會挑起我的私欲？應該避免看什麼讀物？避免去哪些地方？避免與什麼朋友外出？上網時應該如何警醒？在上列的情況中，要操練禱告! 談戀愛者約會時，應避免停留在哪些地方（會給自己提供誘惑，給魔鬼留地步的地方）？
8． 第四，我們需要彼此守望 (mutual accountability)。
我們並不懷疑，吃某一種藥會有某一種的效果 (包括 side effects)。參閱Robert Smith, M.D., The Christian Counselor’s Medical Desk Reference. www.timelesstexts.org. 千萬不要勸一個正在吃藥的人，停止吃藥。這不是我們的責任！究竟這個人的問題是什麼？是什麼問題使他 “需要” 吃藥？他的問題是否真的大腦不靈或 chemical imbalance? 很多時候，人的所謂 “心理病” 其實是罪，是逃避責任。<<聖靈的勸誡>>，頁13， 15； Edward Welch, Blame it on the Brain? P&R. www.prpbooks.com, www.ccef.org.